What can be the cause of this problem? Could it be to do with the unrealistic expectations of independent, child initiated calculating skills and not to do with problems with our teaching methods? I am becoming increasingly frustrated, trying to find evidence for children's independent calculating. We model calculating all the time drawing on children's interests, comparing the amount of boys/girls, adding scores for ball games, board games, shopping games (adding up prices), numicon, but take the adult away and approximately 20% of the children demonstrate the skills independently. I have seen CI calculating going on, but not enough to make a judgement that the child can do it independently. Why do we have to go through this stress?