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NEW AND BETTER APP SCIENCE PACKAGE FROM HAMPSHIRE

Discussion in 'Science' started by bushbabylooks, Mar 14, 2009.

  1. Are you a Science Teacher who is attempting to get to grips with the QCA Science APP.
    Are you feeling that only Beowulf himself could wrestle this monster?
    Maybe you are an experienced teacher with the responsibility of convincing your glassy-eyed colleagues that it's all great and yet really you can clearly see that the Emperor has actually not got any clothes on.
    Well I've been looking on the net for some sign off intelligent dissent and hoping to nGod that someone will tell the QCA to just SNAP OUT OF IT!
    Today I found this.............
    AND IT LOOKS POSSIBLE





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    Contents:





    Page 1: What
    is the purpose of a Hampshire APP package?


    Page 2: Problems
    with the QCA / Strategy Assessment Foci


    Page 3: Principles
    for Hampshire APP


    Page 3: Implementation
    of APP


    Page 4: Important
    definitions for using Hampshire APP


    Page 6: Hampshire
    Assessment Strands (Overview)


    Page 7: Assessment
    Stand A clarified


    Page 8: Assessment strand foci Level 3 to
    level 5


    Page 9: Assessment strand foci Level 4 to
    level 6


    Page 10: Assessment strand foci Level 5 to level
    8


    Page 11: Acknowledgements








    Appendix 1: Exemplification
    of standards for strand A


    Appendix 2: Exemplification
    of standards for strand B


    Appendix 3: Exemplification
    of standards for strand C


    Appendix 4: Exemplification
    of standards for strand D
































    What is the
    purpose of a Hampshire APP package?






    In recent years many science teachers in
    Hampshire have adopted a way of teaching that has independent enquiry at its
    heart. Pupil voice work has shown that this model of teaching is more enjoyable
    for students and better matches what they think real scientists do. Teachers
    consistently report that lessons are more enjoyable for them, students are more
    engaged and it is easier to identify what they can and cannot do. There is
    emerging evidence that it results in better progress as measured by traditional
    tests even when the detailed knowledge tested has not been taught. It is
    suggested by teachers that through this model of teaching students are more
    comfortable with uncertainty and not knowing the answer and so are less
    inclined to give up.


    This model of teaching was derived from teachers
    doing meaningful science themselves. Through reflecting upon this experience
    they identified some key aspects of lessons that must be ensured. Having
    repeated this process many times with different groups of teachers we are
    confident that the essential elements of independent enquiry based science
    learning are:


    <ol style="margin-top:0cm;"><li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">Lessons
    must be built around problems to tackle and the outcome to the problem
    must be uncertain.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">Student&rsquo;s
    must be provided with clear success criteria at the beginning of the
    lesson which steer the pace and quality of their work<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">Students
    must be allowed independence to tackle the problem in the way they see fit
    and time and resources need to be planned to allow for this.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">Conclusions
    must be based upon the evidence gathered by students and this must not be
    over ridden by the teacher providing the &lsquo;correct&rsquo; answer at the end.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">Time and
    resources need to be available for students to change tack during their
    work as a result of evaluation on the fly.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">Areas of
    weakness of understanding identified and addressed in subsequent lessons.</ol>

    We know that assessment strongly influences the style
    of teaching and learning that happens in classrooms. It is important therefore
    that assessment models put in place support the kinds of teaching and learning
    we value.


    Whilst we strongly support the APP model developed by
    QCA and distributed by the Strategy and the principles behind it; we have found
    that the assessment foci as currently described have fundamental flaws for teachers
    already adopting the independent enquiry based approach to teaching. These
    problems are summarised in the table below:

















    Problems
    with the QCA / Strategy Assessment Foci



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    <td style="border:1pt solid windowtext;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:176.4pt;">
    Issue with
    the assessment foci

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:252pt;">
    Likely
    resulting problems

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:176.4pt;">
    The assessment foci are fine descriptors of skill rather than broad
    descriptors of ways of thinking scientifically

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:252pt;">
    Teaching focuses upon minute skill in isolation of
    actually doing interesting science. (An enquiry approach encourages students
    to use their gathered evidence creatively to develop new ideas for them, and
    to evaluate if this evidence is good enough to draw these
    conclusions. The assessment foci do not sufficiently incentivise students to
    look for what their evidence might actually be telling them, which after all
    is the whole point of enquiry. Instead it rewards students for unthinkingly seeking
    to improve evidence even if it is already good enough.)

    Students are not encouraged to see the bigger picture of what they are
    doing instead they focus upon a small aspect of skill that may not even be
    important to the problem they are doing. As such the awe and wonder of
    science is in danger of being lost.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:176.4pt;">
    There are between 17 and 20 descriptors for each level and
    they all have equal weighting.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:252pt;">
    The APP model requires that virtually all descriptors are met and so
    teachers will be under pressure to provide opportunities for them to be met
    over a term rather than focus upon the real next step in learning. There is a
    danger it could become a hoop jumping exercise similar to the discredited old
    science GCSE coursework assessment.

    We don&rsquo;t think all descriptors are of equal worth when doing real
    science, for example, two level 6 descriptors are:

    1. Describe how aspects of science are applied in particular
    jobs or roles


    2.
    Select and manipulate data and information and use them to
    contribute to conclusions


    Whilst it is helpful for student to know
    how real jobs draw on science it is by no means as important as being able to
    use data and evidence to draw conclusions, because this gets to the heart of
    what science is about.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:176.4pt;">
    The standards files contain too much work that is derived from closed
    activities where students are not engaged in finding out anything meaningful
    for themselves

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:252pt;">
    This may act as a disincentive for teachers to take risks with their
    teaching. If science teaching is to engage students and enthuse them to want to continue studying science we do
    need to take risks.

    </td>
    </tr>
    </table>







    HIAS has worked with teachers from schools across the
    county to develop an alternative APP package. It adopts the same philosophy but
    uses a different set of assessment foci, which still adhere to the Programme of
    Study, but support the kind of independent enquiry based learning that is
    having an impact in many schools in the county.





    Principles
    for Hampshire APP



    <ol style="margin-top:0cm;"><li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">It
    should drive the teaching and learning that we value.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">It
    should help us identify students&rsquo; next steps in becoming more effective
    scientists.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">It should
    provide for accurate periodic and terminal assessment.<li class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:6pt;">It
    should be simple to understand and use.</ol>

    We believe the Hampshire APP package is equipped to
    support these principles.





    Implementation
    of APP



    For teachers to use APP effectively they will require
    professional development. Schools need to devise a long term plan for APP to
    become an integral part of assessment and planning. Teachers within a school
    will need opportunities over at least a year to explore the ideas and standards
    files, experiment with using them and adapting their teaching. It is essential
    that teachers within a school have regular opportunities to moderate work and
    discuss emerging issues to do with teaching, learning and assessment. It would
    also be advantageous to moderate between schools.


















































    Important definitions for using
    Hampshire APP






    An essential element of this approach is
    that students work is a genuine representation of their independent thinking.
    Independent of the teacher that is, it is expected that work is undertaken
    collaboratively with their peers. Students need to make important decisions about
    their science for themselves. A student that plots a graph and derives a
    quantitative relationship after the teacher has shown them what to do is not
    working at level 7 because the did not recognise the need to do it for
    themselves in order to solve a problem.





    These are the important ideas that underpin all
    knowledge taught at KS3. They are the models, ideas and laws associated with
    energy, forces, particles and cells.





    This does not mean recalling or describing an
    explanation that has been taught but using their existing knowledge of models
    and ideas to suggest a reason for a phenomenon. It will be tentative and
    ideally is the precursor to an enquiry to test this hypothesis.





    : These are the ideas associated with the terms,
    accuracy, reliability, validity, fair test, precision, error, bias. It is not
    required that students use these actual terms but their work demonstrates an
    understanding of their associated ideas.








    :


    1.
    One
    which requires a multi step solution with scientific judgement needed
    to decide how to progress (a linear complex problem).By scientific judgement we
    mean extrapolative thinking, judging accuracy of conclusions using validity and
    reliability and deciding upon which scientific ideas to draw. These problems
    are not ones that simply contain a
    lot of steps but ones that require the student to make scientific judgements
    after each step as to what to do next.


    o
    For
    example a student investigating the effect of length of wire on current gathers
    fantastic evidence to show that R is proportional to length but at very short
    lengths the resistance becomes significantly greater. They decide to
    investigate this phenomenon further because they recognise that their simple
    theory has broken down.


    2.
    One
    which requires competing or different processes to be considered and their
    contributions evaluated.


    Example 1: In trying to predict whether
    identical meteors would cause a bigger crater on Earth than the moon the
    counter effects of air resistance and gravity need to be considered, and
    evaluated.


    Example 2: &lsquo;Will
    melting ice cause sea levels to rise?&rsquo;
    This question has the potential to
    become complex if the student recognises that floating ice is not the only ice
    melting and then seeks to find out the contribution this ice makes. It will
    require data on the amount of floating versus land based ice that there is and
    their rates of melting. These two competing processes would need to be balanced
    (the variables are not difficult to control but it is complex because there are
    competing processes and different activities need to be done to investigate
    these processes and evaluated separately and then their effects weighed up)


    3.
    Students
    need to deconstruct the initial problem into sub questions that need to be
    addressed to solve the overall problem (a two dimensional complex problem).


    o
    For
    example, a student asks if it is possible for bacteria to get through skin
    without their being a cut. They decide to tackle this problem by using chicken
    skin and a safe culture. They recognise the need to disinfect the chicken skin
    first, and then remove the disinfectant before exposing to bacteria. The next
    question is whether they have considered the possibility of airborne bacteria
    contaminating and sought to overcome this or do a control to measure this. This
    is complex because a number of different issues need to be considered when
    tackling the single problem










































































    Hampshire
    Assessment Strands (Overview)



    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" class="MsoTableGrid" style="border:medium none;width:450pt;margin-left:5.4pt;border-collapse:collapse;">
    <tr>
    <td style="border:1pt solid windowtext;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    Level

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    A:
    Identifying correlations through evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    B: Using
    ideas to suggest causes


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    C:
    Understanding evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    D: Science
    influencing society, society influencing science.


    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    8

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    Dissimilar correlations are effectively interpreted in identifying a
    compound pattern.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it is
    in complex phenomenon.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions from complex investigations or in independently gathering evidence
    to solve a complex problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    Make objective and balanced judgements about scientific and
    technological developments by evaluating economic, ethical/moral, social and
    cultural implications

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    7

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    Independently identify quantitative relationships that are necessary
    to solve the problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is in complex phenomenon.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions from complex investigations or in independently gathering evidence
    to solve a complex problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    o
    Explain how changes in scientific understanding can change
    societal views.

    o
    Recognise how dominant societal views can affect the
    science pursued

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    6

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    Recognise when correlations break down

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions or in independently gathering evidence to solve a problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    o
    Begin to demonstrate an understanding of how science
    develops unevenly as a result of changes in technology and society.

    o
    Evaluate the impact of science and technology on different
    groups of people (including those with different moral and ethical views)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    5

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    Recognising or identifying linear or non linear relationship when
    solving a problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    Beginning to use &lsquo;key ideas&rsquo; to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is or why things happen

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas of evidence (beyond simple fair testing) to
    judge
    the accuracy of conclusions or in independently gathering evidence to
    solve a problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    o
    Relate specific scientific ideas to technological developments
    and vice versa.

    o
    Begin to evaluate the impact of science and technology on
    different groups of people (including those with different moral and ethical
    views)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    4

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    Recognises that patterns may extend beyond the data collected

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    Uses scientific ideas to hypothesis why something may be as it is or
    why things happen.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Comfortable with Fair Testing. (Student can identify variables that
    need to be controlled and those that don&rsquo;t and take steps to do this.)

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    o
    Begin to identify positive and negative implications of
    science on society (and vice versa)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:36.4pt;">
    3

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:84.5pt;">
    Describe a simple pattern within the range of data collected.



    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:86.1pt;">
    Demonstrate that physical things happen for a reason by suggesting
    possible cause and effect relationships

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Beginning to Fair Test.

    (Children beginning to understand that if we want to know if one thing
    affects another then that is the only thing we must change or we won&rsquo;t know
    what caused the effect.)

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117pt;">
    o
    Identify simple relationships between science and society

    </td>
    </tr>
    </table>




    Strand A
    clarified



    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" class="MsoTableGrid" style="border:medium none;width:423pt;margin-left:5.4pt;border-collapse:collapse;">
    <tr>
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    Level

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    A:
    Identifying correlations through evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    An
    example


    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:41.5pt;">
    8

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    Dissimilar correlations are effectively interpreted in identifying a
    compound pattern.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    In investigating the effect of acid concentration on the rate of
    reaction between Mg ribbon and HCl a student recognises that the heat
    generated in the reaction is disguising the true affect of the changing
    concentration. They seek ways to isolate the effect of concentration only.
    They may try measuring the temperature of each reaction at different
    concentrations and then investigating the increase in rate due to this
    increase in temperature. They then try and subtract this rate hike from the
    concentration experiment to identify the contribution made by the changing
    concentration.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:41.5pt;">
    7

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    Independently identify quantitative relationships that are necessary
    to solve the problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    In trying to find the concentration of an unknown acid a student independently decide to plot graphs
    of a suitable factor against concentration (from known acid concentrations)
    and use this to identify the concentration of the unknown acid.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:41.5pt;">
    6

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    Recognise when correlations break down

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    When investigating the affect of load on elastic band extension a
    student reported that as more masses were added to the band it stretched the
    same amount each time until X g had been added and then it seemed to stop
    stretching so much. Furthermore once Y g had been added it didn&rsquo;t stretch at
    all when more mass was added.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:41.5pt;">
    5

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    Recognising or identifying linear or non linear relationship when
    solving a problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    When investigating the affect of load on elastic band extension a
    student reported that adding the same mass always stretched the band the same
    amount. (Note they do not need to use words like proportional they just need
    to recognise the idea)



    When investigating the effect of exercise upon pulse rate a student
    reported finding that as they did more exercise their pulse rate increased
    but gradually reached a maximum.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:41.5pt;">
    4

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    Recognises that patterns may extend beyond the data collected

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    When investigating the affect of load on elastic band extension a
    student concluded that the more mass put on an elastic band it always
    stretches more.

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:41.5pt;">
    3

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:108.5pt;">
    Describe a simple pattern within the range of data collected.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:273pt;">
    When investigating the affect of load on elastic band extension a
    student concluded: &lsquo;as I put more mass
    on the elastic band it stretched more&rsquo;


    </td>
    </tr>
    </table>




    It is important
    to note that students do not necessarily have to do graphs to satisfy these
    criteria if they do they do not need to be perfect. However a student who does
    not see the need to do a graph or draws one incorrectly is unlikely to be able
    to see the patterns and correlations described. As such graphs are skills that
    allow us to think scientifically and they need to be taught, but they do not
    define the level of thinking in themselves













    Assessment
    strand foci Level 3 to level 5



    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" class="MsoTableGrid" style="border:medium none;width:771pt;margin-left:-18.6pt;border-collapse:collapse;">
    <tr>
    <td style="border:1pt solid windowtext;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    Level

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    A:
    Identifying correlations through evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    B: Using
    ideas to suggest causes


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    C: Understanding evidence

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    D: Science influencing
    society, society influencing science.


    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    5

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    Recognising or identifying linear or non linear relationship when
    solving a problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    Beginning to use &lsquo;key ideas&rsquo; to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is or why things happen

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas of evidence (beyond simple fair testing) to
    judge
    the accuracy of conclusions or in independently gathering evidence to
    solve a problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Relate
    specific scientific ideas to technological developments and vice versa.

    o
    Begin
    to evaluate the impact of science and technology on different groups of
    people (including those with different moral and ethical views)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    4

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    Recognises that patterns may extend beyond the data collected

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    Uses scientific ideas to hypothesis why something may be as it is or
    why things happen.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    Comfortable with Fair Testing. (Student can identify variables that
    need to be controlled and those that don&rsquo;t and take steps to do this.)

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Begin
    to identify positive and negative implications of science on society (and
    vice versa)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    3

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    Describe a simple pattern within the range of data collected.



    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    Demonstrate that physical things happen for a reason by suggesting
    possible cause and effect relationships

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    Beginning to Fair Test.

    (Children beginning to understand that if we want to know if one thing
    affects another then that is the only thing we must change or we won&rsquo;t know
    what caused the effect.)

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Identify
    simple relationships between science and society

    </td>
    </tr>
    </table>













    Assessment
    strand foci Level 4 to level 6



    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" class="MsoTableGrid" style="border:medium none;width:771pt;margin-left:-18.6pt;border-collapse:collapse;">
    <tr>
    <td style="border:1pt solid windowtext;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    Level

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:121.4pt;">
    A:
    Identifying correlations through evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    B: Using
    ideas to suggest causes


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:243pt;">
    C:
    Understanding evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    D: Science influencing
    society, society influencing science.


    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    6

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:121.4pt;">
    Recognise when correlations break down

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:243pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions or in independently gathering evidence to solve a problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Begin
    to demonstrate an understanding of how science develops unevenly as a result
    of changes in technology and society.

    o
    Evaluate
    the impact of science and technology on different groups of people (including
    those with different moral and ethical views)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    5

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:121.4pt;">
    Recognising or identifying linear or non linear relationship when
    solving a problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Beginning to use &lsquo;key ideas&rsquo; to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is or why things happen

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:243pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas of evidence (beyond simple fair testing) to
    judge
    the accuracy of conclusions or in independently gathering evidence to
    solve a problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Relate
    specific scientific ideas to technological developments and vice versa.

    o
    Begin
    to evaluate the impact of science and technology on different groups of
    people (including those with different moral and ethical views)

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    4

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:121.4pt;">
    Recognises that patterns may extend beyond the data collected

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:126pt;">
    Uses scientific ideas to hypothesis why something may be as it is or
    why things happen.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:243pt;">
    Comfortable with Fair Testing. (Student can identify variables that
    need to be controlled and those that don&rsquo;t and take steps to do this.)

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Begin
    to identify positive and negative implications of science on society (and
    vice versa)

    </td>
    </tr>
    </table>







    Assessment
    strand foci Level 5 to level 8



    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" class="MsoTableGrid" style="border:medium none;width:771pt;margin-left:-18.6pt;border-collapse:collapse;">
    <tr>
    <td style="border:1pt solid windowtext;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    Level

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    A:
    Identifying correlations through evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    B: Using
    ideas to suggest causes


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    C:
    Understanding evidence


    </td>
    <td style="border-style:solid solid solid none;border-color:windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    D: Science influencing
    society, society influencing science.


    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    8

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    Dissimilar correlations are effectively interpreted in identifying a
    compound pattern.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it is
    in complex phenomenon.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions from complex investigations or in independently gathering evidence
    to solve a complex problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    Make
    objective and balanced judgements about scientific and technological
    developments by evaluating economic, ethical/moral, social and cultural
    implications

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    7

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    Independently identify quantitative relationships that are necessary
    to solve the problem.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is in complex phenomenon.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    Beginning to use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions from complex investigations or in independently gathering evidence
    to solve a complex problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Explain
    how changes in scientific understanding can change societal views.

    o
    Recognise
    how dominant societal views can affect the science pursued

    </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:46.6pt;">
    6

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:117.1pt;">
    Recognise when correlations break down

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:134.25pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas to hypothesise why something may be as it
    is.

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:239.05pt;">
    Confidently use key ideas of evidence to judge the accuracy of
    conclusions or in independently gathering evidence to solve a problem

    </td>
    <td style="border-style:none solid solid none;border-color:-moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color;border-width:medium 1pt 1pt medium;padding:0cm 5.4pt;width:234pt;">
    o
    Begin
    to demonstrate an understanding of how science develops unevenly as a result
    of changes in technology and society.

    o
    Evaluate
    the impact of science and technology on different groups of people (including
    those with different moral and ethical views)

    </td>
    </tr>
    </table>










    Acknowledgments.





    I
    would like to thank every science teacher in Hampshire (and some elsewhere)
    that have taken what we all initially thought was the risky step of letting
    students think for themselves. Through the experience of giving students
    interesting problems to tackle collaboratively but independently of the teacher
    we have learned much about what motivates students. We have also learned much
    about what they can and cannot do and what we need to do as teachers to help
    them get better at science.





    I
    would particularly like to thank the Hampshire Leading Science Teacher group
    who have been consistent in their challenge of every idea and set of materials
    placed before them. The work they have done on complex problems has transformed
    what many teachers in Hampshire now understand by the word &lsquo;challenge&rsquo;.





    I
    would also like to thank Martin Smith, Sonia Piper, Stacey Davies and Emma Baker
    for their tremendous enthusiasm and preparedness to test ideas to destruction
    over the last 8 months.











    Richard
    Aplin (on behalf of the Hampshire Science Team)





    Feb
    2009



     
  2. This is really useful. Their model of science education through independent enquiry is exactly how I want to teach (I'm in ITT at the moment) - although it is a struggle to train students up for it. As a model for APP assessment it hits the button, spot on.

     
  3. The link does not work for me. I went to the Hampshire site but it appears you need to be registered with them to get anything. Do you have an updated link for downloading or could you email me a copy of the resource?


    Cheers,

    Andrew Jones
     
  4. briggs1209

    briggs1209 New commenter

    http://hias.hants.gov.uk/science/file.php/1/Hants_APP/Hampshire_APP_Final.doc

    this link may work. I found a doc file by searching for a chunk of the text in google.
     

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