I've already told you that I think most challenging children are the way they are because they have learnt that there is no consequence for behaving otherwise. I don't see why you think this relates to innate qualities or child development. If its a choice between vague anecdotal evidence and my personal experience I'll stick with me thanks. Perhaps if you provided some clarification of your own instead of continually dodging the issue then I'd be more inclined to believe in what you are saying. Did the student teacher punish badly behaved students or use the threat of punishment at any stage? You can't have a relationship with children who refuse to have one Raymond. You stated in post 25 that presence has "nothing to do with fear" (surely we can agree that this means fear of punishment for behaving badly). If your student teacher punished or even threatened to punish that class then it undermines your argument - how do you know it wasn't the fear of punishment that caused the students to have a productive relationship with the teacher?