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Muslims not allowed to do music?

Discussion in 'Music' started by TrueFaith, Nov 11, 2010.

  1. TrueFaith

    TrueFaith New commenter

    I arrived to school this morning (after year 7 'settling-in' parents' evening) to find an e-mail from the head of year 7 saying that one father wanted to withdraw his son from music lessons 'due to religious beliefs'.

    Has anyone had any experience of this before? I'm in my fifth year in an inner london comp, and have taught many Muslim pupils before, and have never come across this before.

    Advice from the head (which apparently he gleaned from an Imam) was that 'school music' was fine, and 'sexy music' wasn't. Does anyone know what this 'sexy music' is? (I wasn't planning on teaching Je Taime or The Stripper or anything, but we do study popular music)

    The head is supporting the department in this and doesn't want to set a precedent for letting pupils opt out of the National Curriculum.

    Any thoughts?
  2. TrueFaith

    TrueFaith New commenter

    I arrived to school this morning (after year 7 'settling-in' parents' evening) to find an e-mail from the head of year 7 saying that one father wanted to withdraw his son from music lessons 'due to religious beliefs'.

    Has anyone had any experience of this before? I'm in my fifth year in an inner london comp, and have taught many Muslim pupils before, and have never come across this before.

    Advice from the head (which apparently he gleaned from an Imam) was that 'school music' was fine, and 'sexy music' wasn't. Does anyone know what this 'sexy music' is? (I wasn't planning on teaching Je Taime or The Stripper or anything, but we do study popular music)

    The head is supporting the department in this and doesn't want to set a precedent for letting pupils opt out of the National Curriculum.

    Any thoughts?
  3. YesMrBronson

    YesMrBronson New commenter

    Why not just let it go? Surely it's between the Head and the crazy parent.
  4. There was a thread on this quite recently! Do a quick search....

    With regards this being a new experience - well many Muslim parents nowadays are far more proactive about their children's education and matters that may conflict with their religious beliefs.
    Music is an issue that divides Muslims; most accept to some degree that music is not permissible, but the level of how far they go differs....
    As such the parent hs every right to object to music lessons that conflict with their belief....
    These scholarly pieces may assist your understanding and appreciation of the matter and demonstrate the conflicting opinions - the second is VERY long - but both are opinions accpeted by equally large groups of Muslims and no doubt increasing numbers of parents of students will decide to take up this issue with schools re music etc!
    <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1"><tr><td>What Does Islam Say on Music?
    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"></td><td align="left">Question
    </td><td>Dear scholars, As-Salaam `Alaykum. I am teacher in a public school and I would like to help my non-Muslim colleagues as well as my Muslim community. Our problem in my school is that music is a subject of the curriculum but more and more students come to say parents are not willing anymore to let them listen to music. I also know that some of us Muslims consider music Haram while others listen to it. Where is the line? Is choir forbidden? What instruments are forbidden? A lot of Muslim parents are worrying around Christmas. What can we do to reassure and help parents and at the same time build trust between parents and teachers? Jazakum Allah khayran.
    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"></td><td align="left">Date
    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"></td><td align="left">Name of Counsellor
    </td><td>Ahmad Kutty
    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"></td><td align="left">Topic
    </td><td>Singing & Music
    </td></tr></table></td><td align="right">[​IMG]</td><td align="left">Answer
    </td><td align="left">[​IMG]</td></tr></table><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td>Wa`alykum As-Salaamu Warahmatullahi Wabarakaatuh.

    In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

    All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

    Dear questioner, thanks for your question, which reflects the great confidence you place in us. We implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake.

    In his response to the question you posed, Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and an Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, states:

    &ldquo;Music is an issue that has been hotly debated by scholars of the past and the present. While many of them have been generally inclined to condemn all forms of music, with the singular exception of ad-duff (tambourine) in weddings, quite a few of them have taken a more positive approach of considering only music containing sensual, pagan, or unethical themes or subliminal messages as being categorically forbidden.

    The latter view seems to be more consistent with the general nature of Islam, which is undoubtedly a complete way of life that caters to all of the genuine human instincts and needs within permissible limits. Thus, to say that all music is forbidden in Islam does not seem to agree with the balanced approach of Islam to issues of human life and experience.

    Traditions often cited by the first group scholars to justify condemnation of all musical instruments and music, according to some scholars, are considered as either spurious, or phrased in such way solely because of their associations with drinking, dancing, and sensuality.

    While everyone agrees that all forms of music that contain pagan, sensual themes, or subliminal messages are clearly forbidden, the latter group of scholars considers all forms of music free of such themes and messages as permissible.

    As a matter of fact, we know from the authentic traditions that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, not only allowed music in the weddings but also listened to girls singing: While listening to girls singing on such an occasion, he interrupted them only once when they sang the following verse, &ldquo;In our midst is a prophet who knows what will happen tomorrow&rdquo;; whence, the Prophet, peace be upon him, told them, &ldquo;Cut this sentence out, and continue singing what you have been singing earlier.&rdquo; There is nothing in the sources to indicate that the above permission is limited to the occasion of wedding, as some people tend to think.

    In light of these, according to the last mentioned group of scholars, music that is deemed to be free of un-Islamic and unethical themes and messages, the same is true of musical instruments so long as they are not used for the above, have been considered as permissible.

    But we have to stress that Islam clearly prohibits mixed dancing of males and females.&rdquo;

    Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: www.islam.ca

    You can also read:

    Islam's Stance on Music


    Read more: http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503545728#ixzz150LkGaffI have always heard that music, singing and dancing are haram in Islam. I went to this other site for the first time,XXX, and typed in music and all of these articles appeared which said music,dancing, and singing in Islam is halal??? They said "as long as the 2 sexes are not close together and their is no drinking going on" etc. and they even have hadiths that try to prove our Prophet Muhammed s.a.w was ok with this??? I am very confused now... Could you PLEASE give a full, detailed explanation about the Islamic ruling on music, singing and dancing and when it is allowed, if it is even allowed at all.

    Praise be to Allaah.
    Ma&rsquo;aazif is the plural of mi&rsquo;zafah, and refers to musical instruments (Fath al-Baari, 10/55), instruments which are played (al-Majmoo&rsquo;, 11/577). Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) narrated from al-Jawhari (may Allaah have mercy on him) that ma&rsquo;aazif means singing. In his Sihaah it says that it means musical instruments. It was also said that it refers to the sound of the instruments. In al-Hawaashi by al-Dimyaati (may Allaah have mercy on him) it says: ma&rsquo;aazif means drums (dufoof, sing. daff) and other instruments which are struck or beaten (Fath al-Baari, 10/55).
    Evidence of prohibition in the Qur&rsquo;aan and Sunnah:
    Allaah says in Soorat Luqmaan (interpretation of the meaning):
    &ldquo;And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing) to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah&hellip;&rdquo; [Luqmaan 31:6]
    The scholar of the ummah, Ibn &lsquo;Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: this means singing. Mujaahid (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: this means playing the drum (tabl). (Tafseer al-Tabari, 21/40).
    Al-Hasan al-Basri (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: this aayah was revealed concerning singing and musical instruments (lit. woodwind instruments). (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/451).
    Al-Sa&rsquo;di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: this includes all manner of haraam speech, all idle talk and falsehood, and all nonsense that encourages kufr and disobedience; the words of those who say things to refute the truth and argue in support of falsehood to defeat the truth; and backbiting, slander, lies, insults and curses; the singing and musical instruments of the Shaytaan; and musical instruments which are of no spiritual or worldly benefit. (Tafseer al-Sa&rsquo;di, 6/150)
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The interpretation of the Sahaabah and Taabi&rsquo;in, that &lsquo;idle talk&rsquo; refers to singing, is sufficient. This was reported with saheeh isnaads from Ibn &lsquo;Abbaas and Ibn Mas&rsquo;ood. Abu&rsquo;l-Sahbaa&rsquo; said: I asked Ibn Mas&rsquo;ood about the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), &lsquo;&ldquo;And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks&rsquo; [Luqmaan 31:6]. He said: By Allaah, besides Whom there is no other god, this means singing &ndash; and he repeated it three times. It was also reported with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn &lsquo;Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both) that this means singing. There is no contradiction between the interpretation of &ldquo;idle talk&rdquo; as meaning singing and the interpretation of it as meaning stories of the Persians and their kings, and the kings of the Romans, and so on, such as al-Nadr ibn al-Haarith used to tell to the people of Makkah to distract them from the Qur&rsquo;aan. Both of them are idle talk. Hence Ibn &lsquo;Abbaas said: &ldquo;Idle talk&rdquo; is falsehood and singing. Some of the Sahaabah said one and some said the other, and some said both. Singing is worse and more harmful than stories of kings, because it leads to zinaa and makes hypocrisy grow (in the heart); it is the trap of the Shaytaan, and it clouds the mind. The way in which it blocks people from the Qur&rsquo;aan is worse than the way in which other kinds of false talk block them, because people are naturally inclined towards it and tend to want to listen to it. The aayaat condemn replacing the Qur&rsquo;aan with idle talk in order to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah without knowledge and taking it as a joke, because when an aayah of the Qur&rsquo;aan is recited to such a person, he turns his back as if he heard them not, as if there were deafness in his ear. If he hears anything of it, he makes fun of it. All of this happens only in the case of the people who are most stubbornly kaafirs and if some of it happens to singers and those who listen to them, they both have a share of this blame. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/258-259).
    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    &ldquo;[Allaah said to Iblees:] And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice (i.e. songs, music, and any other call for Allaah&rsquo;s disobedience)&hellip;&rdquo; [al-Israa&rsquo; 17:64]
    It was narrated that Mujaahid (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: &ldquo;And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice&rdquo; &ndash; his voice [the voice of Iblees/Shaytaan] is singing and falsehood. Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This idaafah [possessive or genitive construction, i.e., your voice] serves to make the meaning specific, as with the phrases [translated as] &ldquo;your cavalry&rdquo; and &ldquo;your infantry&rdquo; [later in the same aayah]. Everyone who speaks in any way that is not obedient to Allaah, everyone who blows into a flute or other woodwind instrument, or who plays any haraam kind of drum, this is the voice of the Shaytaan. Everyone who walks to commit some act of disobedience towards Allaah is part of his [the Shaytaan&rsquo;s] infantry, and anyone who rides to commit sin is part of his cavalry. This is the view of the Salaf, as Ibn &lsquo;Abi Haatim narrated from Ibn &lsquo;Abbaas: his infantry is everyone who walks to disobey Allaah. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan).
    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    &ldquo;Do you then wonder at this recitation (the Qur&rsquo;aan)?
    And you laugh at it and weep not,
    Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)&rdquo;
    [al-Najm 53:59-61]
    &lsquo;Ikrimah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: it was narrated from Ibn &lsquo;Abbaas that al-sumood [verbal noun from saamidoon, translated here as &ldquo;Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)&rdquo;] means &ldquo;singing&rdquo;, in the dialect of Himyar; it might be said &ldquo;Ismidi lanaa&rdquo; [&lsquo;sing for us&rsquo; &ndash; from the same root as saamidoon/sumood] meaning &ldquo;ghaniy&rdquo; [sing]. And he said (may Allaah have mercy on him): When they [the kuffaar] heard the Qur&rsquo;aan, they would sing, then this aayah was revealed.
    Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning) &ldquo;Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)&rdquo; &ndash; Sufyaan al-Thawri said, narrating from his father from Ibn &lsquo;Abbaas: (this means) singing. This is Yemeni (dialect): ismad lana means ghan lana [sing to us]. This was also the view of &lsquo;Ikrimah. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer).
    It was reported from Abu Umaamah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: &ldquo;Do not sell singing slave women, do not buy them and do not teach them. There is nothing good in this trade, and their price is haraam. Concerning such things as this the aayah was revealed (interpretation of the meaning): &lsquo;And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing) to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah&hellip;&rsquo; [Luqmaan 31:6].&rdquo; (Hasan hadeeth)
    The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
    &ldquo;Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments&hellip;&rdquo; (Narrated by al-Bukhaari ta&rsquo;leeqan, no. 5590; narrated as mawsool by al-Tabaraani and al-Bayhaqi. See al-Silsilah al-Saheehah by al-Albaani, 91).
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This is a saheeh hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh, where he quoted it as evidence and stated that it is mu&rsquo;allaq and majzoom. He said: Chapter on what was narrated concerning those who permit alcohol and call it by another name.
    This hadeeth indicates in two ways that musical instruments and enjoyment of listening to music are haraam. The first is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: &ldquo;[they] permit&rdquo; which clearly indicates that the things mentioned, including musical instruments, are haraam according to sharee&rsquo;ah, but those people will permit them. The second is the fact that musical instruments are mentioned alongside things which are definitely known to be haraam, i.e., zinaa and alcohol: if they (musical instruments) were not haraam, why would they be mentioned alongside these things? (adapted from al-Silsilah al-Saheehah by al-Albaani, 1/140-141)
    Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This hadeeth indicates that ma&rsquo;aazif are haraam, and ma&rsquo;aazif means musical instruments according to the scholars of (Arabic) language. This word includes all such instruments. (al-Majmoo&rsquo;, 11/535).
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: And concerning the same topic similar comments were narrated from Sahl ibn Sa&rsquo;d al-Saa&rsquo;idi, &lsquo;Imraan ibn Husayn, &lsquo;Abd-Allaah ibn &lsquo;Amr, &lsquo;Abd-Allaah ibn &lsquo;Abbaas, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Umaamah al-Baahili, &lsquo;Aa&rsquo;ishah Umm al-Mu&rsquo;mineen, &lsquo;Ali ibn Abi Taalib, Anas ibn Maalik, &lsquo;Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Saabit and al-Ghaazi ibn Rabee&rsquo;ah. Then he mentioned it in Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, and it indicates that they (musical instruments) are haraam.
    It was narrated that Naafi&rsquo; (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Ibn &lsquo;Umar heard a woodwind instrument, and he put his fingers in his ears and kept away from that path. He said to me, O Naafi&rsquo;, can you hear anything? I said, No. So he took his fingers away from his ears and said: I was with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he heard something like this, and he did the same thing. (Saheeh Abi Dawood). Some insignificant person said that this hadeeth does not prove that musical instruments are haraam, because if that were so, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would have instructed Ibn &lsquo;Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both) to put his fingers in his ears as well, and Ibn &lsquo;Umar would have instructed Naafi&rsquo; to do likewise! The response to this is: He was not listening to it, but he could hear it. There is a difference between listening and hearing. Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Concerning (music) which a person does not intend to listen to, there is no prohibition or blame, according to scholarly consensus. Hence blame or praise is connected to listening, not to hearing. The one who listens to the Qur&rsquo;aan will be rewarded for it, whereas the one who hears it without intending or wanting to will not be rewarded for that, because actions are judged by intentions. The same applies to musical instruments which are forbidden: if a person hears them without intending to, that does not matter. (al-Majmoo&rsquo;, 10/78).
    Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: the listener is the one who intends to hear, which was not the case with Ibn &lsquo;Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both); what happened in his case was hearing. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) needed to know when the sound stopped because he had moved away from that path and blocked his ears. So he did not want to go back to that path or unblock his ears until the noise had stopped, so when he allowed Ibn &lsquo;Umar to continue hearing it, this was because of necessity. (al-Mughni, 10/173)
    (Even though the hearing referred to in the comments of the two imaams is makrooh, it was permitted because of necessity, as we will see below in the comments of Imaam Maalik (may Allaah have mercy on him). And Allaah knows best).
    The views of the scholars (imaams) of Islam
    Al-Qaasim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Singing is part of falsehood. Al-Hasan (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: if there is music involved in a dinner invitation (waleemah), do not accept the invitation (al-Jaami by al-Qayrawaani, p. 262-263).
    Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The view of the four Imaams is that all kinds of musical instruments are haraam. It was reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari and elsewhere that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that there would be among his ummah those who would allow zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments, and he said that they would be transformed into monkeys and pigs&hellip; None of the followers of the imaams mentioned any dispute concerning the matter of music. (al-Majmoo&rsquo;, 11/576).
    Al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The four madhhabs are agreed that all musical instruments are haraam. (al-Saheehah, 1/145).
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The madhhab of Abu Haneefah is the strictest in this regard, and his comments are among the harshest. His companions clearly stated that it is haraam to listen to all musical instruments such as the flute and the drum, even tapping a stick. They stated that it is a sin which implies that a person is a faasiq (rebellious evil doer) whose testimony should be rejected. They went further than that and said that listening to music is fisq (rebellion, evildoing) and enjoying it is kufr (disbelief). This is their words. They narrated in support of that a hadeeth which could not be attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). They said: he should try not to hear it if he passes by it or it is in his vicinity. Abu Yoosuf said, concerning a house from which could be heard the sound of musical instruments: Go in without their permission, because forbidding evil actions is obligatory, and if it were not allowed to enter without permission, people could not have fulfilled the obligatory duty (of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil). (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).
    Imaam Maalik (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about playing the drum or flute, if a person happens to hear the sound and enjoy it whilst he is walking or sitting. He said: He should get up if he finds that he enjoys it, unless he is sitting down for a need or is unable to get up. If he is on the road, he should either go back or move on. (al-Jaami&rsquo; by al-Qayrawaani, 262). He (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: &ldquo;The only people who do things like that, in our view, are faasiqs.&rdquo; (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 14/55).
    Ibn &lsquo;Abd al-Barr (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Among the types of earnings which are haraam by scholarly consensus are ribaa, the fee of a prostitute, anything forbidden, bribes, payment for wailing over the dead and singing, payments to fortune-tellers and those who claim to know the unseen and astrologers, payments for playing flutes, and all kinds of gambling. (al-Kaafi).
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, explaining the view of Imaam al-Shaafa'i: His companions who know his madhhab (point of view) stated that it is haraam and denounced those who said that he permitted it. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).
    The author of Kifaayat al-Akhbaar, who was one of the Shaafa&rsquo;is, counted musical instruments such as flutes and others, as being munkar (evil), and the one who is present (where they are being played) should denounce them. (He cannot be excused by the fact that there are bad scholars, because they are corrupting the sharee&rsquo;ah, or evil faqeers &ndash; meaning the Sufis, because they call themselves fuqaraa&rsquo; or faqeers &ndash; because they are ignorant and follow anyone who makes noise; they are not guided by the light of knowledge; rather they are blown about by every wind. (Kifaayat al-Akhbaar, 2/128).
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: With regard to the view of Imaam Ahmad, his son &lsquo;Abd-Allaah said: I asked my father about singing. He said: Singing makes hypocrisy grow in the heart; I do not like it. Then he mentioned the words of Maalik: the evildoers (faasiqs) among us do that. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan).
    Ibn Qudaamah, the researcher of the Hanbali madhhab &ndash; (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Musical instruments are of three types which are haraam. These are the strings and all kinds of flute, and the lute, drum and rabaab (stringed instrument) and so on. Whoever persists in listening to them, his testimony should be rejected. (al-Mughni, 10/173). And he said (may Allaah have mercy on him); If a person is invited to a gathering in which there is something objectionable, such as wine and musical instruments, and he is able to denounce it, then he should attend and speak out against it, because then he will be combining two obligatory duties. If he is not able to do that, then he should not attend. (al-Kaafi, 3/118)
    Al-Tabari (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The scholars of all regions are agreed that singing is makrooh and should be prevented. Although Ibraaheem ibn Sa&rsquo;d and &lsquo;Ubayd-Allaah al-&lsquo;Anbari differed from the majority, (it should be noted that) the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: &ldquo;Adhere to the majority.&rdquo; And whoever dies differing from the majority, dies as a jaahili. (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 14/56). In earlier generations, the word &ldquo;makrooh&rdquo; was used to mean haraam, then it took on the meaning of &ldquo;disliked&rdquo;. But this is to be understood as meaning that it is forbidden, because he [al-Tabari] said &ldquo;it should be prevented&rdquo;, and nothing is to be prevented except that which is haraam; and because in the two hadeeths quoted, music is denounced in the strongest terms. Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) is the one who narrated this report, then he said: Abu&rsquo;l-Faraj and al-Qaffaal among our companions said: the testimony of the singer and the dancer is not to be accepted. I say: if it is proven that this matter is not permissible, then accepting payment for it is not permissible either.
    Shaykh al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said: What Ibraaheem ibn Sa&rsquo;d and &lsquo;Ubayd-Allaah al-&lsquo;Anbari said about singing is not like the kind of singing that is known nowadays, for they would never have allowed this kind of singing which is the utmost in immorality and obscenity. (al-I&rsquo;laam)
    Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: It is not permissible to make musical instruments. (al-Majmoo&rsquo;, 22/140). And he said: According to the majority of fuqahaa&rsquo;, it is permissible to destroy musical instruments, such as the tanboor [a stringed instrument similar to a mandolin]. This is the view of Maalik and is the more famous of the two views narrated from Ahmad. (al-Majmoo&rsquo;, 28/113). And he said: &hellip;Ibn al-Mundhir mentioned that the scholars were agreed that it is not permissible to pay people to sing and wail&hellip; the consensus of all the scholars whose views we have learned about is that wailing and singing are not allowed. Al-Shu&rsquo;bi, al-Nakha&rsquo;i and Maalik regarded that as makrooh [i.e., haraam]. Abu Thawr, al-Nu&rsquo;maan &ndash; Abu Haneefah (may Allaah have mercy on him) &ndash; and Ya&rsquo;qoob and Muhammad, two of the students of Abu Haneefah said: it is not permissible to pay anything for singing and wailing. This is our view. And he said: musical instruments are the wine of the soul, and what it does to the soul is worse than what intoxicating drinks do. (Majmoo&rsquo; al-Fataawa, 10/417).
    Ibn Abi Shaybah (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported that a man broke a mandolin belonging to another man, and the latter took his case to Shurayh. But Shurayh did not award him any compensation &ndash; i.e., he did not make the first man pay the cost of the mandolin, because it was haraam and had no value. (al-Musannaf, 5/395).
    Al-Baghawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) stated in a fatwa that it is haraam to sell all kinds of musical instruments such as mandolins, flutes, etc. Then he said: If the images are erased and the musical instruments are altered, then it is permissible to sell their parts, whether they are silver, iron, wood or whatever. (Sharh al-Sunnah, 8/28)
    An appropriate exception
    The exception to the above is the daff &ndash; without any rings (i.e., a hand-drum which looks like a tambourine, but without any rattles) &ndash; when used by women on Eids and at weddings. This is indicated by saheeh reports. Shaykh al-Islam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made allowances for certain types of musical instruments at weddings and the like, and he made allowances for women to play the daff at weddings and on other joyful occasions. But the men at his time did not play the daff or clap with their hands. It was narrated in al-Saheeh that he said: &ldquo;Clapping is for women and tasbeeh (saying Subhaan Allaah) is for men.&rdquo; And he cursed women who imitate men and men who imitate women. Because singing and playing the daff are things that women do, the Salaf used to call any man who did that a mukhannath (effeminate man), and they used to call male singers effeminate &ndash; and how many of them there are nowadays! It is well known that the Salaf said this.
    In a similar vein is the hadeeth of &lsquo;Aa&rsquo;ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), when her father (may Allaah be pleased with him) entered upon her at the time of Eid, and there were two young girls with her who were singing the verses that the Ansaar had said on the day of Bu&rsquo;aath &ndash; and any sensible person will know what people say about war. Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: &ldquo;Musical instruments of the Shaytaan in the house of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)!&rdquo; The Messenger of Allaah had turned away from them and was facing the wall &ndash; hence some scholars said that Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) would not tell anybody off in front of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but he thought that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not paying attention to what was happening. And Allaah knows best. He (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) said: &ldquo;Leave them alone, O Abu Bakr, for every nation has its Eid, and this is our Eid, the people of Islam.&rdquo; This hadeeth shows that it was not the habit of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions to gather to listen to singing, hence Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq called it &ldquo;the musical instruments of the Shaytaan&rdquo;. And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of this appellation and did not deny it when he said, &ldquo;Leave them alone, for every nation has its Eid and this is our Eid.&rdquo; This indicates that the reason why this was permitted was because it was the time of Eid, and the prohibition remained in effect at times other than Eid, apart from the exceptions made for weddings in other ahaadeeth. Shaykh al-Albaani explained this in his valuable book Tahreem Aalaat al-Tarab (the Prohibition of Musical Instruments). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of young girls singing at Eid, as stated in the hadeeth: &ldquo;So that the mushrikeen will know that in our religion there is room for relaxation.&rdquo; There is no indication in the hadeeth about the two young girls that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was listening to them. The commands and prohibitions have to do with listening, not merely hearing, just as in the case of seeing, the rules have to do with intentionally looking and not what happens by accident. So it is clear that this is for women only. Imaam Abu &lsquo;Ubayd (may Allaah have mercy on him) defined the daff as &ldquo;that which is played by women.&rdquo; (Ghareeb al-Hadeeth, 3/64).
    An inappropriate exception Some of them make an exception for drums at times of war, and consequentially some modern scholars have said that military music is allowed. But there is no basis for this at all, for a number of reasons, the first of which is that this is making an exception with no clear evidence, apart from mere opinion and thinking that it is good, and this is wrong. The second reason is that what the Muslims should do at times of war is to turn their hearts towards their Lord. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    &ldquo;They ask you (O Muhammad) about the spoils of war. Say: &lsquo;The spoils are for Allaah and the Messenger.&rsquo; So fear Allaah and adjust all matters of difference among you&hellip;&rdquo; [al-Anfaal 8:1]. But using music is the opposite of this idea of taqwa and it would distract them from remembering their Lord. Thirdly, using music is one of the customs of the kuffaar, and it is not permitted to imitate them, especially with regard to something that Allaah has forbidden to us in general, such as music. (al-Saheehah, 1/145)
    &ldquo;No people go astray after having been guided except they developed arguments amongst themselves.&rdquo; (Saheeh)
    Some of them used the hadeeth about the Abyssinians playing in the mosque of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as evidence that singing is allowed! Al-Bukhaari included this hadeeth in his Saheeh under the heading Baab al-Hiraab wa&rsquo;l-Daraq Yawm al-&lsquo;Eid (Chapter on Spears and Shields on the Day of Eid). Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This indicates that it is permissible to play with weapons and the like in the mosque, and he applied that to other activities connected with jihaad. (Sharh Muslim). But as al-Haafiz ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: whoever speaks about something which is not his profession will come up with weird ideas such as these.
    Some of them use as evidence the hadeeth about the singing of the two young girls, which we have discussed above, but we will quote what Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, because it is valuable:
    I am amazed that you quote as evidence for allowing listening to sophisticated songs the report which we mentioned about how two young girls who were below the age of puberty sang to a young woman on the day of Eid some verses of Arab poetry about bravery in war and other noble characteristics. How can you compare this to that? What is strange is that this hadeeth is one of the strongest proofs against them. The greatest speaker of the truth [Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq] called them musical instruments of the Shaytaan, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of that appellation, but he made an exception in the case of these two young girls who had not yet reached the age of responsibility and the words of whose songs could not corrupt anyone who listened to them. Can this be used as evidence to allow what you do and what you know of listening (to music) which includes (bad) things which are not hidden?! Subhaan Allaah! How people can be led astray! (Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 1/493).
    Ibn al-Jawzi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: &lsquo;Aa&rsquo;ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was young at that time; nothing was transmitted from her after she reached the age of puberty except condemnation of singing. Her brother&rsquo;s son, al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, condemned singing and said that it was not allowed to listen to it, and he took his knowledge from her. (Talbees Iblees, 229). Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: A group of the Sufis used this hadeeth &ndash; the hadeeth about the two young girls &ndash; as evidence that singing is allowed and it is allowed to listen to it, whether it is accompanied by instruments or not. This view is sufficiently refuted by the clear statement of &lsquo;Aa&rsquo;ishah in the following hadeeth, where she says, &ldquo;They were not singers.&rdquo; She made it clear that they were not singers as such, although this may be understood from the wording of the report. So we should limit it to what was narrated in the text as regards the occasion and the manner, so as to reduce the risk of going against the principle, i.e., the hadeeth. And Allaah knows best. (Fath al-Baari, 2/442-443).
    Some people even have the nerve to suggest that the Sahaabah and Taabi&rsquo;een listened to singing, and that they saw nothing wrong with it!
    Al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said: We demand them to show us saheeh isnaads going back to these Sahaabah and Taabi&rsquo;een, proving what they attribute to them. Then he said: Imaam Muslim mentioned in his introduction to his Saheeh that &lsquo;Abd-Allaah ibn al-Mubaarak said: The isnaad is part of religion. Were it not for the isnaad, whoever wanted to could say whatever he wanted to.
    Some of them said that the ahaadeeth which forbid music are full of faults. No hadeeth was free of being criticized by some of the scholars. Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The ahaadeeth which were narrated concerning music being haraam are not full of faults as has been claimed. Some of them are in Saheeh al-Bukhaari which is the soundest of books after the Book of Allaah, and some of them are hasan and some are da&rsquo;eef. But because they are so many, with different isnaads, they constitute definitive proof that singing and musical instruments are haraam.
    All the imaams agreed on the soundness of the ahaadeeth which forbid singing and musical instruments, apart from Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali, but al-Ghazzaali did not have knowledge of hadeeth; and Ibn Hazam, but al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) explained where Ibn Hazam went wrong, and Ibn Hazam himself said that if any of (these ahaadeeth) were saheeh, he would follow that. But now they have proof that these reports are saheeh because there are so many books by the scholars which state that these ahaadeeth are saheeh, but they turn their backs on that. They are far more extreme than Ibn Hazam and they are nothing like him, for they are not qualified and cannot be referred to.
    Some of them said that the scholars forbade singing because it is mentioned alongside gatherings in which alcohol is drunk and where people stay up late at night for evil purposes.
    Al-Shawkaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The response to this is that mentioning these things in conjunction does not only mean that what is haraam is what is joined together in this manner. Otherwise this would mean that zinaa, as mentioned in the ahaadeeth, is not haraam unless it is accompanied by alcohol and the use of musical instruments. By the same token, an aayah such as the following (interpretation of the meaning):
    &ldquo;Verily, he used not to believe in Allaah, the Most Great,
    And urged not on the feeding of Al?Miskeen (the poor).&rdquo;
    [al-Haaqqah 69:33-34]
    would imply that it is not haraam to disbelieve in Allaah unless that is accompanied by not encouraging the feeding of the poor. If it is said that the prohibition of such things one at a time is proven from other reports, the response to that is that the prohibition of musical instruments is also known from other evidence, as mentioned above. (Nayl al-Awtaar, 8/107).
    Some of them said that &ldquo;idle talk&rdquo; does not refer to singing; the refutation of that has been mentioned above. Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This &ndash; the view that it means singing &ndash; is the best that has been said concerning this aayah, and Ibn Mas&rsquo;ood swore three times by Allaah besides Whom there is no other god, that it does refer to singing. Then he mentioned other imaams who said the same thing. Then he mentioned other views concerning the matter. Then he said: The first view is the best of all that has been said on this matter, because of the marfoo&rsquo; hadeeth, and because of the view of the Sahaabah and the Taabi&rsquo;een. (Tafseer al-Qurtubi).
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him), after quoting this Tafseer, said: Al-Haakim Abu &lsquo;Abd-Allaah said in the Tafseer of Kitaab al-Mustadrak: Let the one who is seeking this knowledge know that the Tafseer of a Sahaabi who witnessed the revelation is a hadeeth with isnaad according to the two Shaykhs (al-Bukhaari and Muslim). Elsewhere in his book, he said: In our view this hadeeth has the same strength as a marfoo&rsquo; report. Although their tafseer is still subject to further examination, it is still more readily acceptable than the tafseer of those who came after them, because they are the most knowledgeable among this ummah of what Allaah meant in his Book. It was revealed among them and they were the first people to be addressed by it. They heard the tafseer from the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in word and in deed. And they were Arabs who understood the true meanings of (Arabic) words, so Muslims should avoid resorting to any other interpretation as much as possible.
    Some of them said that singing is a form of worship if the intention is for it to help one to obey Allaah!
    Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: How strange! What type of faith, light, insight, guidance and knowledge can be gained from listening to tuneful verses and music in which most of what is said is haraam and deserves the wrath and punishment of Allaah and His Messenger? &hellip; How can anyone who has the least amount of insight and faith in his heart draw near to Allaah and increase his faith by enjoying something which is hated by Him, and He detests the one who says it and the one who accepts it? (Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 1/485)
    Shaykh al-Islam said, discussing the state of the person who has gotten used to listening to singing: Hence you find that those who have gotten used to it and for whom it is like food and drink will never have the desire to listen to the Qur&rsquo;aan or feel joy when they hear it, and they never find in listening to its verses the same feeling that they find when listening to poetry. Indeed, if they hear the Qur&rsquo;aan, they hear it with an inattentive heart and talk whilst it is being recited, but if they hear whistling and clapping of hands, they lower their voices and keep still, and pay attention. (Majmoo&rsquo; al-Fataawa, 11/557 ff)
    Some say that music and musical instruments have the effect of softening people&rsquo;s hearts and creating gentle feelings. This is not true, because it provokes physical desires and whims. If it really did what they say, it would have softened the hearts of the musicians and made their attitude and behaviour better, but most of them, as we know, are astray and behave badly.
    Perhaps &ndash; for fair-minded and objective readers &ndash; this summary will make it clear that the view that music is permissible has no firm basis. There are no two views on this matter. So we must advise in the best manner, and then take it step by step and denounce music, if we are able to do so. We should not be deceived by the fame of a man in our own times in which the people who are truly committed to Islam have become strangers. The one who says that singing and musical instruments are permitted is simply supporting the whims of people nowadays, as if the masses were issuing fatwas and he is simply signing them! If a matter arises, they will look at the views of fuqahaa&rsquo; on this matter, then they will take the easiest view, as they claim. Then they will look for evidence, or just specious arguments which are worth no more than a lump of dead meat. How often have these people approved things in the name of sharee&rsquo;ah which in fact have nothing to do with Islam!
    Strive to learn your Islam from the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of your Prophet. Do not say, So-and-so said, for you cannot learn the truth only from men. Learn the truth and then measure people against it. This should be enough for the one who controls his whims and submits himself to his Lord. May what we have written above heal the hearts of the believers and dispel the whispers in the hearts of those who are stricken with insinuating whispers. May it expose everyone who is deviating from the path of Revelation and taking the easiest options, thinking that he has come up with something which none of the earlier generations ever achieved, and speaking about Allaah without knowledge. They sought to avoid fisq (evildoing) and ended up committing bid&rsquo;ah &ndash; may Allaah not bless them in it. It would have been better for them to follow the path of the believers.
  5. florian gassmann

    florian gassmann Star commenter

    If you really want to get involved in the full hocus-pocus, take a look at:
    Just to stir things up a bit in true Daily Mail style, see:
    "an expert on music
    education and Muslims, said she had visited schools where half of the
    pupils were withdrawn from music lessons by their parents during
    ...A spokesman for Ofsted said: 'Music is an important part of
    any child or young person's education. Any examples of pupils being
    treated unequally would be a matter of significant concern.'"
    Methinks you are caught between a rock and a hard place. Follow MrBronson's advice - this is the sort of thing that heads are paid to sort out.

  6. I wouldn't quote from this site - the site is not accepted by Muslims as being Islamic in basis - the site is based on the revelations of Rashad Khalifa - who in turn was not accepted as a Muslim...
    Thus any quotes from it will not be held as valid by any mainstream Muslim - inc Shia, Sunni....
  7. englishteach101

    englishteach101 Occasional commenter

    As far as I'm aware, it varies from Imam to Imam. I haven't experienced this yet, but know other people who have. It seems to be that the teaching/advice from certain Imams is stricter on what types of music is allowed, and some seem to come down on the side of 'well just take them out of the subject then'.
    There is music in Islam, which is why this type of thing surprises me, but unfortunately isn't heard of.
    It's great the Head's backing you and they're right not to set precedent on this. Keep talking to the head and take their advice on the subject and try your best not to make Mozart 'too sexy' i suppose.
    Good luck with a difficult area!

  8. florian gassmann

    florian gassmann Star commenter

    Ah well, trust anything to do with religion to be divisive.
    I see we've just had some poor soul asking what to do with Jehovah's Witnesses at Christmas.
    Carry on like this and we'll be worrying about Jewish kids studying Wagner, and vegetarians wanting to replace "boiled beef and carrots" with "quorn slice and carrots".
  9. TrueFaith

    TrueFaith New commenter

    Thanks for all the feedback - we're learning the Ukulele this term, so there shouldn't be any problem with the sexy stuff...

    There'll be no mention of the X factor in my classroom... (which is clearly what we'd end up with if I played any Wagner. 'I swear he's that weird bloke off the X factor' etc...)
  10. Bear in mind that for some ALL instruments are haram.....
  11. it's the parents... as well as being a music / music tech teacher and special needs teacher, i have taught all races and all colours, there's no such thing as "sexy music" as music is a universal language... apart from maths, this is the only one.
    The farther's been watching the wrong programs on TV!!! :)
  12. muso2

    muso2 Occasional commenter Community helper

    Check out this link - the previous LA music advisor for Birmingham did lots of work on music education and muslim children.
    In our school, the vast majority of muslim pupils take part in music, but aren't encouraged by their parents to take it any further (in my understanding, this is because pop music is associated with 'loose morals' and exploitation, which might be seen to have a point if you examine some lyrics!). A handful have parents who want to withdraw them, and some do not want to take part in music-making during ramadan (this I respect, only when I don't see them listening to music on their iPods in the corridors!).
    With parents talking of withdrawing their children from music, I'd play the NC card, then always refer it to the head!
  13. YesMrBronson

    YesMrBronson New commenter

    As a devout follower of music I have decided to remove my children from Islam.
  14. Theatres were shut down during Cromwell's time and music, dancing and the like was suppressed across the land- Maypole dancing for example was suppressed.
    Opera proved a way out towards the end of the English Republic. The first operas in England were not operas at all- the law hadn't banned opera so theatrical entertainment got called opera to get around the rules.
    Why do you think the West End exists? It lay outside the City of London and so was outside of its Puritanical clutches.
    It is no coincedence that many English composers of the period- and indeed the Elizabethan era as well- were Catholic... and that Charles the Second's obsession with 'entertainment' music and otherwise did not go down well with Londoners.
  15. Playford basically monopolised music publishing during the republic. Hardly pluralistic. His 'music' basically wrote down folk music that had been around for generations.
    What 'operas' were allowed were politically correct- Sir JohnDavenant's 'operas' of the late 1650s were anti Spanish in nature.
  16. Miss Pious, if Mohammad banned dancing, music and mixed dancing and the like then there must have been an awful lot of it going on in Mecca at the time he banned it.
    Course, if people want to believe in such claptrap may the Lottery numbers of next week be on my side then that is democracy not theocracy thanks be to God(s)
  17. florian gassmann

    florian gassmann Star commenter

    Strictly speaking, the theatres were closed by the long parliament in 1642, long before Cromwell became Lord Protector, due to the outbreak of civil war.
    But my point is that Cromwell himself was very fond of music, as indeed were all but the most extreme puritans. Yes, they strongly objected to elaborate church music, but never once questioned the lawfulness of secular music, save to ban its performance on the sabbath.
    You can get a good idea of Cromwell's attitude to music in the letter sent by one of the Dutch ambassadors describing a dinner held in honour of the three Dutch ambassadors at Whitehall on 27 April 1654:
    "12 trumpeters were ready sounding against our coming ... music played all the while we were at dinner ... The Lord Protector had us into another room where the Lady Protectrice and others came to us, where we also had music and voices". (Quoted in "Oliver Cromwell" by George Henry Clark).
  18. florian gassmann

    florian gassmann Star commenter

    And as for dancing, see http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67775, which gives an account of the festivities at Whitehall on the marriage of Cromwell's daughter in 1657:
    "An account of the wedding feast of Frances and Robert Rich,
    which took place at Whitehall on 12th November, states that there were
    "48 violins and 50 trumpets, and much mirth with frolics, besides mixt
    dancing (a thing heretofore accounted profane) 'till 5 of the clock' on the
    following morning. "
  19. Yes, but he did ban Christmas. Don't worry about the Muslims, they are stuck in Medieval world, when they catch up, then you need to worry!
    All religion is miserable - it makes you fat and gives you cancer. That's why I'm an Anglican!

  20. florian gassmann

    florian gassmann Star commenter

    Re: Oliver Cromwell
    No he didn't. Parliament decreed that church services were only to be held on Sundays, and it therefore followed that the 25th December should be treated as a normal working day unless it fell on a Sunday (although this was never properly enacted, and was widely disregarded). There was also a Puritan dislike of any festivals with names that reminded people of the mass (as in Christmas, Candlemass and so on).
    There seems to be a lot of confusion in this thread about Cromwell. He was never an extreme puritan, and by the time he became Lord Protector he was almost in the position of a modern monarch, having to accept whatever parliament promulgated (some of which he personally disliked). All the evidence suggests that he eventually came to relish the life of a proto-monarch, employing his own court orchestra, staging lavish banquets for foreign dignatories, and (as I mentioned earlier) dancing till dawn at his own daughter's wedding.

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