I think this is an extremely good point NellyFUF. However, I tend to think the ethos of early years is about describing children rather than assessing them. We observe the child and build a picture of him/her in our minds. We come to know that child well and use our knowledge to decide what we need to put in place for them to help them develop further along the path they are taking. The idea of 'assessing' children immediately puts us into Key Stage territory where assessment is about comparing a child with others and finding them wanting. Then it is a short step to developing targets and aims for that child to get them to a standard point where we want them to be. This is (or should be) very different from EYFS where children are valued for where they are, not for where they need to be. This is why the development matters uses age bands rather than levels and to try to translate it into levels is to totally misunderstand what early years education is all about. In the early years perhaps we can trust that children have a huge potential for learning and not act as if they need to be forced through certain hoops or they might not get 5 A to Cs at GCSE. Of course children reach a stage where they have to be assessed and even given targets to check they are progressing well through the curriculum and getting a balanced and appropriate education, but this is not right for young children. With young children it is essential to foster and support their personal developmental paths to make their education truly rich and meaningful to them. So, please - no targets for 3/4 year olds. And I think my FS2 colleagues will probably add 5 year olds. Behaviour targets might be a little different, but in any other of the areas the targets should be for the adults, not for the children, and should be about providing the very best of experiences for each child.