@dunnocks I'm still not convinced on your claim that modern humans and Neanderthals are the same species. And after some digging into this fascinating subject can offer the following evidence to suggest we are not. https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/who-were-the-neanderthals.html Whilst I can except this isn't a scientific paper we must agree that the Natural History Museum and Prof Chris Stringer are credible sources. In this article the professor says Neanderthal is a distinct species (nice to have a Prof agree with me ) but that we have a common ancestor. That could explain why we share some DNA but thats just my theory (and I'll keep the Prof in the picture ). I couldn't find a date to this article so it might be superseded by more recent developments. I would be interested if you have a link to show this.